The Quietus - A new rock music and pop culture website

The Quietus Essay

Having A Bawl: Why Does Music Make People Cry?
Robert Barry , March 5th, 2014 06:28

Robert Barry investigates the biology behind music's capacity to make us cry, and explains how emotional responses to music might have influenced our social evolution

Add your comment »

I still remember it quite clearly. Standing in the middle of Virgin Megastores on Western Road in Brighton. Big chunky black headphones on, listening to 'Perfect Day' by Lou Reed on one of the in-store 'listening posts'. Eyes welling up, tears running down my cheeks. The song never affected me like that before or since. No idea why it did then. I remember nothing else about that day. I can't have been more than about 15.

"When listening to music we are often surprised," William James, the American pragmatist and psychologist, once said, "at the cutaneous shiver which like a sudden wave flows over us, and at the heart swelling and lacrymal effusion that unexpectedly catches us at intervals."

We know the brute mechanism of these watery effusions. The parasympathetic division of the autonomic nervous system activates the lacrimal gland. Nerve impulses run back and forth on the opthalmic division of the trigeminal cranial nerve. A colourless cocktail of water, mucin, urea, proteins, fats, enzymes, and sugars is secreted by the gland and overflows the tear ducts, simultaneously cleaning dust from the conjunctiva and preventing the cornea from drying out.

But there are tears and then there are tears. Emotional tears, the ones wrung from inner pain and the recognition of tragedy, have even a different chemical composition. There are proteins that are theirs alone. And the precise network of higher brain functions involved in these less obviously functional emissions remains shrouded in mystery.

Was I looking for the key to unlock this curious memory fragment when, a decade and a half from that day in Brighton town centre, I went by train to a conference on neuroaesthetics at the Zentrum für Kunst und Medientechnologie in Karlsruhe? There, among neuroscientists discussing cross-cultural differences in aesthetic appreciation and cyberneticists trying to coax their computers into 'jamming' with them, I encountered the work of Dr. Eckart Altenmüller. A classical flautist and esteemed neurophysiologist from the University of Music & Drama in Hannover, for five years Professor Altenmüller had gone in search of a universal formula for what he called music's "chill" effect - those goosebumps and shivers down the spine that caught William James so unaware.

"I wanted to have the recipe," he told us. He had dreamed of going to North Cameroon with the "ultimate 'chill' music" and reducing the locals to stunned awe or quivering emotional rapture. "It did not work out," he confessed of his curious musico-imperial ambitions. "Music," he discovered after years spent poring over fMRI readouts, "is very biographically modulated."

But Altenmüller is far from alone in his bizarre universalist assumptions. Many are those who have sought some sure path to the emotional power of music, some kind of sonic switch direct to the brain like the one Dr. Lilly afforded his monkeys to allow them to orgasm at will. No matter how deeply and instinctively we all know that the tears wrenched from our ducts by a certain line in a certain song are ours and ours alone, still there is the inevitable Buzzfeed listicle. "28 Songs That Are Guaranteed," it promises, "To Make You Cry." One of them is that maudlin 'Mad World' cover from Donnie Darko. Each to their own, I suppose.

Oliver Sacks, the British physician fictionalised by Robin Williams in the film version of his book Awakenings, speaks of a grieving correspondent forced by floods of tears to abjure the music she "had always loved. … It didn't seem to matter much what the music was – it became impossible to listen to … Music induced feelings of being overwhelmed by terror and sadness, so much so that I had to turn the music off, crying, and continue to cry for quite a while."

Another subject discussed by Sacks, a patient of his this time, found herself moved almost inescapably to tears of joy by music for which she had never previously cared, after the surgical removal of a brain tumour left her with a sudden, pronounced musicophilia.

"Music has a wonderful power," wrote Charles Darwin in 1872, "of recalling in a vague and indefinite manner, those strong emotions which were felt during long-past ages, when, as is probable, our early progenitors courted each other by the aid of vocal tones. And as several of our strongest emotions – grief, great joy, and sympathy – lead to the free secretion of tears, it is not surprising that music should be apt to cause our eyes to become suffused with tears, especially when we are already softened by any of the tenderer feelings."

For Darwin, like Freud after him, tears were related to the child's flailing attempt to communicate. The tears of an adult may then be precipitated by the same feeling of helplessness we experienced in infancy. The voluntary becomes first habitual, finally hereditary. But though I have often felt bludgeoned into pant-wetting, thumb-sucking submission by many purveyors of noise music; few – if any – of the power electronics brigade have truly made me cry.

Darwin's The Expression Of The Emotions In Man & Animals spoke of elephants shedding emotional tears, but Michael Trimble, the author of a recent book about crying, considers it a uniquely human trait. Like Darwin, Trimble is interested in the evolutionary origin of tears. He quotes approvingly Paul MacLean's suggestion that emotional crying may have derived from the first ceremonial cremations of our oldest direct ancestors, a hundred thousand years ago. Smoke mingled with mourning created an association between irritated tear ducts and feelings of grief that has persisted through the mists of evolutionary time.

Searching inside the brain for the link between tears and tunes, the most obvious place to look might be the cerebellum. Millions of years old, these twin bulbous hemispheres tucked beneath the cerebrum seem to be closely involved in the rhythmic regulation of the body. Studies have linked the cerebellum to our ability to follow a beat, and track changes in a piece of music. But Jeremy Schmahmann, a professor of neurology at Harvard, has also suggested a close link between the cerebellum and the experience of intense emotion, via its links with the amygdala (involved in emotion and memory) and the frontal lobe.

In his bestselling book This Is Your Brain On Music, Daniel Levitin devotes a lot of space to the cerebellum and its crucial role in our responses to music. He points to studies that have shown structural changes in this part of the brain with the acquisition of musical skill. But he's most interested in the cerebellum's link to musical enjoyment and pleasure. "Music breathes, speeds up, and slows down just as the real world does, and our cerebellum finds pleasure in adjusting itself to stay synchronised," he says. "Our response to groove is largely pre- or unconscious, because it goes through the cerebellum rather than the frontal lobe."

But speaking more specifically about music and crying, Michael Trimble is interested in parts of the brain at once more specific and more distributed. He looks to the brain's 'mirror neurons' - circuits that fire not only when performing a given action, but also when witnessing the same action being performed by another. First discovered only a few decades ago by a group led by Giacomo Rizzolatti at the University of Parma, the existence of mirror neurons is now well-established, and it has been speculated that they form the neurological basis for our feelings of empathy.

"Through the actions of mirror neurons, humans have the capacity to experience, albeit at second hand, the same 'feelings' as others have," Trimble claims, noting the involvement of mirror neurons in the auditory system. "With music we resound (re-sound) with feelings and resonate with empathy, with emotional contagion".

This reminds me of something that new age composer Laraaji said to me on the phone last year. "Music can suggest a union of souls," he said in the midst of our interview. "You may not even realise that that's what you're feeling. Music can conjure up moods and feelings for the emotional body, and during that experience, a release from either congestion or release from senses of separation is accompanied by tears and crying." He called it "a coming together".

For Trimble, it's not just that music and emotional tears are intimately connected – quoting the Romanian philosopher E. M. Cioran, "Tears are music in material form." Beyond that, the pleasure we get from shedding tears to our favourite song has played an important role in the development of humanity. Music has flourished because it can make us cry by eliciting compassion, arousing our empathy, and this is rewarding – both neuroanatomically, and socially. What Trimble calls the "hypertrophy" of compassion in humans, encouraged in part by the joy of music, "has given us the potential for social interactions of the most sensitive and profound nature." So those tears may not just be good for you – they're good for civilisation.

If you love our features, news and reviews, please support what we do with a one-off or regular donation. Year-on-year, our corporate advertising is down by around 90% - a figure that threatens to sink The Quietus. Hit this link to find out more and keep on Black Sky Thinking.


Mar 5, 2014 11:45am

Gut article

Reply to this Admin

Sean K
Mar 5, 2014 1:48pm

Very interesting and well written article. Strangely enough, as someone who cries often (especially at the end of movies and they don't even have to be sad), music generally doesn't make me cry. I wonder if perhaps I have done something strange and terrifying to the old grey matter... I did cry when I saw the Arkestra play minus Sun Ra for the first time. Mind you, I also walked into a glass door later that night (very, very drunk). Generally though, music makes me feel soaringly happy and transcendent - about as far from crying as I can imagine. 'Gold' by Spandau Ballet makes me feel sick, but that's another matter entirely...

Reply to this Admin

aaron.
Mar 5, 2014 5:03pm

Well written and really pretty interesting. I would love for it to go deeeeeeper into the metaphysics of music and crying, though (the -physics, so to speak, being really well covered). A fascinating topic.

Reply to this Admin

ad hominem
Mar 5, 2014 5:06pm

i often wonder if an albeit history of drug taking affects the ease at which i well up when certain music plays?

Reply to this Admin

ad hominem
Mar 5, 2014 5:07pm

i meant 'albeit brief'

Reply to this Admin


Mar 5, 2014 7:25pm

It's strange how it creeps up on you. Never had a problem before, but in the last couple of years, I've been incapable of listening to Bjork without blubbing.

Reply to this Admin

Adam
Mar 5, 2014 8:10pm

Dire Straits - Tunnel of Love did it for me once. Yeah, I know! I don't care, still love that song :)

Reply to this Admin

Taun Aengus
Mar 5, 2014 9:16pm

Strange personal synchronicity with this article..... I teared up just the other day listening to Casper Brotzmann Massaker doing Templehof. What's up with that?

Reply to this Admin

matt
Mar 6, 2014 3:32am

A nice and interesting article. a quibble:

"emotional crying may have derived from the first ceremonial cremations of our oldest direct ancestors, a hundred thousand years ago. Smoke mingled with mourning created an association between irritated tear ducts and feelings of grief that has persisted through the mists of evolutionary time. "

100,000 years is not really a great deal in evolutionary time, and this also seems like something of a Lamarckian concept? I'm struggling to think how this trait could be aquired in a Darwinian fashion.

Quibble aside, thanks for the read!

Matt

Reply to this Admin

Sean K
Mar 6, 2014 2:43pm

Just wanted to play devil's advocate... here's a quote from Peter J Carroll (the foremost chaos magick philosopher): 'Consider laughter: it is the highest emotion, for it can contain any of the others from ecstasy to grief. It has no opposite. Crying is merely an underdeveloped form of it which cleanses the eyes and summons assistance to infants.'

Reply to this Admin

aaron.
Mar 6, 2014 6:07pm

In reply to Sean K :

That's just a poor man's Nietzsche.

Reply to this Admin

Sean K
Mar 7, 2014 2:19pm

In reply to aaron.:

True to some extent, though I hate that phrase 'poor man's' - which usually just means that the person using it recognises the idea from somewhere else. Problem is, ideas aren't hatched, newly formed from singular original minds - they're usually echoes of ideas that have been around long before. Like Eternal recurrence for instance. That's just 'poor man's' eastern philosophy... personally I'm more interested in philosophies that apply themselves to altering our realities, rather than the endless impotent discussion that academic philosophers often indulge in...

Reply to this Admin

Jim Carter
Apr 25, 2015 4:44pm

None of these comments have mentioned that music is actually a series of frequencies. This is probably what resonates with something in our brain/heart/soul/whatever that achieves these effects. I have cried many times listening to certain music. Beethoven's 9th, Embryonic Journey, Turn! Turn! Turn!. It always involves a certain chord progression that makes me feel utterl helplessness. It is so beautiful it resonants on some level I can't understand. But, the one piece of music that completely wrecks me is St. Saens Organ Symphony. And even more intense is the "If I had a Day" motif from "Babe" As soon as I hear the first note I'm crippled. Interestingly enough, Mozart doesn't do this to me. I find it ver pleasant, but no tears. Some of his works come close, like his flute concerto or the Queen of the Nights aria. Anyway, I would like to know someone that is doing cutting edge work on this. Our society has become so evil, that I'm sure there is work being done in this area to control the herd. Sort of like research into weather manipulation, which given the severity of weather and earthquakes in areas that have never had them. And, sorry, its not "Climate Change" The only people that believe in that religion are "Emperor's Clothing" sheep. Climate change occurs daily, but man is not causing it. That is a ridiculous level of hubris. This entity earth can shrug its shoulders and kill us all. But, we can't do any permanent damage to it. No, what is promoted as climate change is the amount of energy coming from the sun.

Reply to this Admin

Sheryl
Jul 3, 2015 10:09am

Very interesting and insightful article. I just wonder if this phenomenon of music making us cry can in any way be connected to Stendhal's syndrome more here... Pretty much the same thing, but the latter is described as a disorder. Whatever it is, either increased sensitivity to art or indeed some kind of distorted perception worded as disorder, it shows that human beings are not driven solely by brain processes, but also have something spiritual, not conceivable by scientific research...

Reply to this Admin

Bob Cross
Dec 29, 2015 7:19pm

Music has to be the very best distraction for a troubled soul.
How on earth can a mind in turmoil get its head around serious prose?
Poetry is a close second, but nothing really compares with the roller coaster ride of music, glorious music!
Right now, it's Gustav Holsts magnificient second suite for military band in F major.
To hell with dull care!!!!

Reply to this Admin

Anicka
Jul 5, 2016 12:55am

I have noticed that as have gotten older..I am now 55..I seem to cry at an unlimited selection of genres of songs. I feel embarassed especially when I am in church and I start gushing at the Hymnal selections!!! I can also start crying at various other musical selections that I hear at any time if I love the lyrics or the harmony. I have always loved music and played classical piano for 10 years so I do't know if that has influenced me.

Reply to this Admin

Anne
Apr 16, 2017 5:27am

Okay. here is one music that makes me want to cry so hard. Its going to make you want to cry too. Its not a sad song or anything else, Its Prelude to Khovanshchina otherwise known as Dawn on Moscow River by Modest Mussorgsky,(arranged by Rimsky Korsakov). Every time I listen to it, I become spell bound and almost in a trance that I can visualize something entirely beautiful scene unfolding before me, and sad at the same time And then, I start crying after the piece ends. And to make matters worse I can visualize the labradoodle that I loved so much, including my mom who I just recently missed. And if I was to put everything together, it would be so overwhelming for me. Its like going into a dream and everything around me is dying.

Reply to this Admin

ARYAN
May 5, 2017 5:36pm

cse.ap.gov.in

Reply to this Admin


May 20, 2017 2:12pm

WHY DO PEOPLE USE THIS RIDICULOUS SOOOOOOO HARD TO READ FONT

Reply to this Admin

Lola
Aug 6, 2017 12:33am

Today I hear the song La Bohemia, which I never really paid any attention to and suddenly it brought out so many tears and emotions that came out of nowhere. I don't even know French so I did not understand the lyrics. I cried for about an hour and could not believe it. It's a beautiful song but normally when I hear a beautiful song I dance i don't cry. Turns out, my mother used to play this song around the house when I was a child and it might have brought up feeling of infancy. Great article!

Reply to this Admin